Automatic Teller Machines (ATMs) are easily accessible in Australia (including at the airport) and allow you to withdraw cash from your overseas bank account (if your bank card has international access). Check this with your financial institution before leaving home.
Australian currency is the only legal tender in Australia. When you first arrive, you can exchange foreign currency at exchange facilities in most major banks or at a currency exchange. Search online for banks and currency exchanges in Brisbane before you arrive.
It is recommended that you set up an Australian bank account soon after your arrival, particularly if you are going to be living in Australia for some time. There are many banking institutions in Australia which offer special student accounts. You can compare banks and the accounts they offer at infochoice.com.au. Normal bank trading hours are 9:30am to 4:30pm Monday to Thursday, and 9:30am to 5:00pm on Friday. Some banks are open on Saturday mornings, but all banks are closed on Sundays and public holidays.